Molten Steel: NIST vs. Everyone Else

"I saw melting of girders in World Trade Center." -Structural Engineer Abolhassan Astaneh 2007-05-10 - PBS Newshour - Collapse of Overpass in California Becomes Lesson in Construction

With no special protective gear, he worked within a few feet of still burning fires, “like a volcano,” hot enough that molten steel could be seen dripping down. “My boots melted every night,” he recalled. “You just didn’t stand in one place too long.” -Tom Hickey 2005-09-09 - The River Reporter - WTC injuries hobble local man

"I talked to many contractors and they said they actually saw molten metal trapped, beams had just totally had been melted because of the heat." -Chaplain Herb Trimpe 2002-09-08 - The Times Herald-Record - A Day In September The Chaplain's Tale

"You'd get down below and you'd see molten steel -- molten steel! -- running down the channel rails. Like you're in a foundry... like lava... from a volcano." -FDNY Captain Ruvolo 2003-01-01 - Turn Century Pictures - COLLATERAL DAMAGES

"descended deep below street level to areas where underground fires still burned and steel flowed in molten streams." 2002-08-01 - The Atlantic Monthly Group - 77 NORTH WASHINGTON STREET

"In some pockets now being uncovered, they are finding molten steel." -Alison Geyh, PhD. 2001-10-01 - Bloomberg School of Public Health - Mobilizing Public Health Danger in the Dust

"Feeling the heat, seeing the molten steel, the layers upon layers of ash, like lava, it reminded me of Mt. St. Helens and the thousands who fled that disaster" -Ron Burger 2003-09-01 - National Environmental Health Association - Messages in the Dust

"They showed us many fascinating slides" ... "ranging from molten metal which was still red hot weeks after the event, to 4-inch thick steel plates sheared and bent in the disaster." -Dr Keith Eaton The Structural Engineer 2002-09-03 - The Institution of Structural Engineers - President visits ground zero on New York visit New York visit reveals extent of WTC disaster

"Smoke constantly poured from the peaks. One fireman told us that there was still molten steel at the heart of the towers' remains. Firemen sprayed water to cool the debris down but the heat remained intense enough at the surface to melt their boots. Massive steel girders were sandwiched in with crushed concrete. Someone told us that they weighed 1,000 pounds a foot. The collapse left them all blackened and twisted. They are among the few recognizable items in the rubble. You find scant evidence of the hundreds of offices that were once part of the twin towers. Most the furniture and equipment was pounded into dust." -Guy Lounsbury of New York Air National Guard's 109th Air Wing National Guard 2001-12-01 - The National Guard Association of the United States - Serving on 'sacred ground' Guardsman Sees Humanity's Best and Worst during Two Weeks at 'Ground Zero'

"the ominous groaning of weakened structures overhead, or, in the early days, the streams of molten metal that leaked from the hot cores and flowed down broken walls inside the foundation hole." -William Langewiesche 2002-10-24 - North Point Press - American Ground: Unbuilding the World Trade Center

He remembers seeing in the darkness a distant, pinkish glow–molten metal dripping from a beam–but found no signs of life. -Lee Turner of The Boone County Firefighters 2002-09-12 - U.S. News & World Report - They came to help at Ground Zero. What they experienced they can't forget Memories

"In the first few weeks, sometimes when a worker would pull a steel beam from the wreckage, the end of the beam would be dripping molten steel" -Greg Fuchek 2002-09-09 - 1105 Government Information Group - Handheld app eased recovery tasks

O'Toole remembers in February seeing a crane lift a steel beam vertically from deep within the catacombs of Ground Zero. "It was dripping from the molten steel," -Joe O'Toole FDNY 2002-05-29 - Knight Ridder Newspapers - Recovery worker reflects on months spent at Ground Zero

"Underground, it was still so hot that molten metal dripped down the sides of the wall from Building 6." -Kenneth Holden, Commissioner of the New York City Department of Design and Construction 2003-04-01 - National Commission On Terrorist Attacks Upon The United States - Public Hearing

"a fire truck 10 feet below the ground that was still burning two weeks after the towers collapsed, its metal so hot it looked like a vat of molten steel." -Jim McKay, Post-Gazette Staff Writer interviewing Vance Deisingnore, OSHA Officer at WTC 2002-09-11 - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Vance Delsignore: OSHA officer at WTC

"The average temperature beneath the rubble is said to be 1500 F. so that when steel is brought up it is molten and takes two or three days to cool down." -Father Edward A. Malloy 2001-10-24 - - Reflections in the Wake of September 11: Visit to Ground Zero, New York City

The four men sat on a sunny sidewalk in Greenwich Village on a recent workday and ate their lunch staring at the steel skeleton of a building going up on West Third Street. One of them commented on how much easier it was to eat a sandwich in front of steel that was strong and straight and new, not molten and mangled and laden with debris. The men -- Larry Keating, Danny Doyle, Mike Emerson and Bobby Graves -- are veteran ironworkers in Local 40. 2002-11-11 - The New York Times - Ironworkers' Job of Clearing Ground Zero Is Over, but the Trauma Lingers

But the two towers — they were 110-story buildings. And there was nothing that you could put your hands on that resembled anything that would tell you this once was two 110-story office buildings. What you had were large columns of steel that were just stuck into massive amounts of molten steel and other metals, that had just fused together from the heat and bonded together from the strength of the collapse. We dug and we dug and we dug, and we cut and we cut and we cut, and we did not see anything that resembled any type of furniture, any type of personal belongings. We found some pieces of things like a telephone, things like that. I think we found credit cards a few times, and we found a couple of stuffed animals. But you would expect to see, like, a bunch of desks, a bunch of chairs. The only way I can explain it is, if you take a car and put it in one of those machines where they crush it and make it look like a cube, and you can’t recognize what it is, that’s what the whole area looked like. It looked like a massive, molten mess that had been fused together, like a car that had been cubed and crushed. With all that heavy, heavy stuff, there were wires, rebar, concrete. Most of it was just steel. A lot of what we were walking on was just molten steel. -Fire Department Chief Mike Donoho of Texas Task Force 1 Urban Search and Rescue 2002-09-11 - The Eagle - Reluctant hero narrates horror of N.Y. mission